[筆記] 葡萄酒釀造過程

May 9th, 2010

摘自「葡萄酒賞析」 (ISBN: 957818672X)

白葡萄酒

  1. 採收(harvest):通常在九月份開始,較寒冷的區域可能更晚,需要達到的平均糖份大約為 21%~23%。如果要製作特殊的酒款,例如貴腐酒、冰酒則也會更晚摘採。
  2. 運送(transport):運送至酒廠。但如果為冰酒,有些會在採收時就先壓榨然後再送到酒廠去。
  3. 碾壓(crushing):主要為壓破葡萄皮,以利之後的壓榨去皮過程。此時決定是否要留下葡萄果柄(梗),若留下,則會有利於後面壓榨果汁的速度;同時也會帶來較多的單寧,較多的單寧對於果味較濃厚的葡萄可以增加複雜度,但是對於較敏感的葡萄則可能產生負面影響。
  4. 加入二氧化硫(sulfur dioxide addition):調整葡萄酒酸鹼值,抑制野生菌類生長,抑制褐化反應酵素作用,作為抗氧化劑。
  5. 降溫(chilling):以確保進行發酵之前不會讓野生酵母菌引發發酵作用。
  6. 沈澱果皮與果肉(settling of skins, pulp, and juice):沈澱後上層的果汁可以先被引入發酵槽內,下層的果皮與果肉引入壓榨機內進行榨汁,在白葡萄酒製作過程中,應盡快將果汁與果肉、果皮分離。
  7. 榨汁(pressing):取得果肉內的剩餘果汁,壓榨壓力若過大將會壓破葡萄子與葡萄梗而帶來苦味。現代製酒多用空壓式的壓榨機,主要為效率差異。
  8. 靜置沈澱(setting):壓榨出來的果汁裡頭可能有懸浮的葡萄皮或葡萄子、果肉、梗的碎屑,必須等沈澱之後才能取得較乾淨的葡萄汁。
  9. 加入酵母菌(adding starter yeast):加入酵母菌株(天然或人工合成)。
  10. 發酵(fermentation):不銹鋼桶發酵或橡木桶發酵。發酵溫度在15度左右,溫度越高發酵過程將越快,低溫的發酵過程可以保持較佳的水果香氣。如果要製作甜白酒,則可以在到達預定的酒精濃度之後,以降溫方式來停止發酵(跟啤酒類似)。有的釀酒師會在此時就作裝瓶,讓酵母菌繼續在瓶中繼續對葡萄酒進行發酵。
  11. 蘋果乳酸發酵(malolactic fermentation):軟化蘋果酸帶來的酸澀口感,同時增加風味複雜度(註:可能帶來如養樂多、可爾必司的味道),所以進行第二次的發酵作業。在過去自發性的蘋果乳酸發酵的發生與結果很依賴運氣,但現代釀酒學則以供繩的方法來控制其發生與進行。
  12. 酒窖內作業(cellar operation):主要為淨化過程(clarification),將發酵廢物清除,以避免過度發酵與腐敗。
    • 澄清(fining):清除懸浮小顆粒。利用皂土(bentonite clay)或蛋白(註:將蛋白打發到入桶中,蛋白將吸附小顆粒後下沈)清除這些小顆粒,然後將澄清的酒引入另一酒槽中,重複多次即可得到澄清的酒。
    • 過濾(filtration):濾網過濾,但過度過濾可能造層風味被濾網帶走。
    • 安定法(stabilization):加入二氧化硫、己二烯酸以除菌、殺菌或抑菌。
    • 低溫安定(cold stabilization):降溫到 4 渡以下,使得酒石酸結晶沈澱析出,以避免在儲存時產生結晶。
    • 離心(centrifugation):用途為淨化。效率很高,但設備與能源成本昂貴,大量葡萄酒生產時適用,但離心速度過快時可能會將葡萄酒風味也一併去除。
    • 離子交換(ion-exchange):將帶電小分子去除,使葡萄酒更為安定、品質更好。
  13. 熟成(aging):熟成以增加風味,在橡木桶或不銹鋼桶中進行(註:如果在橡木桶中進行時,釀酒師可能進行換桶作業以增加風味。舊的橡木桶帶來的風味將比較溫和,法國橡木桶也比美國橡木桶要來的味道溫和。)
  14. 取樣(barrel sampling):在熟成過程中取樣紀錄風味,作為之後 blending 參考。
  15. 調合(blending):混合風味以取得最好的品質。(註:有些酒莊是不作 blending 的,所以在瓶身編號上面就會暗藏玄機,比方說德國酒,當年有名的 Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars Cask 23)
  16. 裝瓶與包裝(bottling and packaging):準備出貨前的作業。(註:對西班牙的 Crianza 等級以上來說,傳統是在瓶內熟成之後,真的要出貨前才貼標籤)
  17. 瓶內熟成(bottle aging)

紅葡萄酒釀造

  1. 葡萄採收(harvest):九月底十月初,糖分約22~24%。
  2. 運送(transport)
  3. 碾壓分離果汁(crushing and juice separation):將葡萄皮壓爛取得果汁,同時去除莖、梗。壓成稀泥狀的葡萄汁跟果皮、果肉一起引入發酵槽。
  4. 加入二氧化硫(sulfur dioxide addition)
  5. 換桶(vatting):引入大型發酵桶槽進行釀酒作業。
  6. 加入酵母菌(adding starter yeast)
  7. 發酵(fermentation):傳統方式為在小型橡木桶中發酵,但現代方法為在大型不鏽鋼槽中發酵。紅葡萄酒的發酵溫度約在26度,時間約5~7天,發酵過程中必須攪動葡萄汁,使與上層的葡萄皮互相攪拌,以取得較多的色素、風味、單寧。當酵母菌將糖分消耗完之後便停止發酵活動。如果要製作酒體不厚實、強調果香、不需要長期儲存熟乘的酒時,例如Beaujolais Nouveau時,可用碳酸浸解法來進行發酵。
  8. 榨汁(pressing):發酵後將葡萄皮內的葡萄酒完全搾出
  9. 蘋果乳酸發酵(malolactic fermentation)
  10. 熟成(aging):橡木桶中熟成。因為木桶成本越來越高,所以也有在不鏽鋼桶中然後加入橡木塊的方式熟成。
  11. 酒窖內作業(cellar operation)
    • 換桶(racking):去除靜置沈澱物與增加香氣風味。
    • 澄清(fining)
    • 過濾(filtration)
    • 安定法(stabilization)
    • 低溫安定(cold stabilization)
    • 離子交換(ion-exchange)
  12. 存放(aging):增加風味。過程中可能會不斷地 racking 以增加風味。
  13. 取樣(barrel sampling)
  14. 調合(blending)
  15. 裝瓶與包裝(bottling and packaging)
  16. 瓶內熟成(bottle aging)

玫瑰紅葡萄酒製作

以前有寫過一篇,這篇算是比較詳細的整理。

  1. 紅白酒混合法:紅葡萄與白葡萄分開釀製後混合,在法國只有香檳區可以這麼做。
  2. 放血法(Saignee / bleeding):Rosé 為製作紅酒時的副產物。Saignée是為了要提高紅酒的色澤、口味厚實度的一個方式,或者可以叫做「放血」法 :P。在釀製紅酒的初期,葡萄汁的顏色還比較淡,這時候就將部分葡萄汁取出,使得在桶內的果肉、果皮維持原本的量,這樣可以讓之後的葡萄汁更為深厚。而「放血」出來的葡萄汁繼續拿去發酵就變成 Rosé。
  3. 壓榨法:將整批的紅葡萄壓榨後便會有淺淺的紅色出現,之後就去除果皮然後以製作白葡萄酒的方式進行,通常酒色較淺。(註:簡單來說就是把紅葡萄製作的步驟3作改變,在該步驟就把果皮去除,然後接著用白葡萄酒的方式製作,此方法跟上面的放血法很像,但是有點差異)
  4. 發酵前葡萄皮浸漬法:通常在歐洲之外區域使用。類似白酒製作方式,但省略步驟7,或適度榨汁使酒色為淡紅色。
  5. 歐洲標準玫瑰紅酒製作法:以紅葡萄酒的製作流程,但是縮短紅葡萄帶皮發酵的時間,從原本的5~7天縮短到1~3天,然後只取流出的葡萄汁(free run),不再壓榨果皮與果肉。接下來與紅葡萄酒的作法相同,但可能就不會再進橡木桶中熟成,這樣的作法的酒色通常較深,口味較厚實。
  6. 紅葡萄酒去色法:利用吸附等方法去除單寧,並以活性炭吸附紅色素,但這樣的方法也會把葡萄酒中的風味物質去除。屬於廉價Rose作法。

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