Viognier — 1

未成年請勿飲酒,飲酒過量有礙身體健康
2010/10/31, this memorial-worthy wine tasting event is what I hosted in public.


Viognier 為一古老的葡萄品種,在舊世界中著名的產區為隆河的 Condrieu,而怎麼傳入Rhone的,則有很多未經證實(也很難證實)的說法,同時其名稱的由來也是眾說紛紜。

有相傳是羅馬帝王普羅布斯(Marcus Aurelius Probus)在西元 281 年經由帝國擴張從Dalmatia傳入Rhone區,然後再流傳到其他地區與新世界國家。另一個說法是這個葡萄品種早年跟著Syrah一起被沿著 Rhone river 逆流運送,原本是打算送到 Beaujolais 去,但行經 Condrieu 時被 Culs de Piaux 這群盜匪劫走而留了下來。

至於名稱的由來,比較公認的說法是因為 Vienne 這個都市的關係。另一個說法是,在羅馬帝國時期這個葡萄品種叫做 Gehennae,而羅馬語的發音近似 Viognier,而 Gehennae 的意思是 “road to hell”,意指這個葡萄品種在種植照顧上難度不低。

2004年,UC Davis利用DNA檢定的方式,發現Viognier跟Freisa葡萄(主要在義大利 Piedmont)相近,而和Nebbiolo是遠親關係。

Viognier是不太容易種植照顧的品種,因為容易滋生粉狀霉菌,所以需要比較通風、乾燥的區域。另外,需要較長的熟成期,所以在太過溫暖的地方種植則難以發展出良好的香氣。另外採收的時間也很重要,太早採收則香氣不足,太晚採收則有容易產生油膩的口感的問題。

目前主要產區在北隆河,屬於舊式的風格Condrieu。而新式風格的,可在加州、澳洲,還有Languedoc-Roussillon找到。Viognier葡萄藤約在15~20年就可以達到很好的品質,而在北隆河有些葡萄園保有70年以上的老藤。

北隆河產區除Condrieu外,還有Chateau Grillet,此產區為獨佔(跟Romanee Conti一樣…)。另外南隆河也有種植,但是因為南隆河的酒(即便是白酒)多為混釀,所以要找到100% Viognier的葡萄酒較為困難。Condrieu的土壤主要為石灰岩,有些地方裡頭還含有雲母、水晶。

因為Viognier難以照顧,所以原本種植的面積並不大,但在米其林三星餐廳 LaPyramide 的主廚 Fernand Point(1897-1955,二十世紀最具影響力的法國料理大廚)大力提倡之下,一些著名餐廳也起而跟隨使用 Viognier 的酒款來佐餐。隨著 Condrieu 受到歡迎,種植者在 80 年代中期大舉擴張葡萄園的舉動使得管轄單位INAO不得不出面制止。這些事件使得這個原本幾乎被遺忘的產區獲得了重生。

在北美洲,1980年代美、加種植的面積增加很快,但目前主要都是在加州,特別是在Central Coast一帶。在澳洲的話,Yalumba是最大的Viognier釀製酒莊,主要產區為 Eden Valley,土地特色為黏土。

Viognier釀製出來的酒有很大的差異性,可以很像Muscat充滿荔枝的甜香,也可以有 Riesling一樣有花香、礦物味道,也會有像Chadonnay一樣的白桃、杏桃香味,也可以放入木桶中染上奶油、木頭香氣。

在新世界使用高比例新橡木桶來陳放 Viognier 的並不多,這樣的陳年方式似乎是延續了法國的陳放處理方式,但在 Condrieu 有一些所謂「新派」的酒莊與釀酒師(如 Yves Cuilleron)開始使用較多的新木桶來陳放 Viognier,雖然在木桶中的時間平均來說並不長(與 Chardonnay 相比),但是也為傳統果香花調為主的 Viognier 帶來不一樣的風味。

但不論釀酒或陳年的處理方式為何,一般來說 Viognier 的陳放實力是比較弱的,這主要是因為酸度通常比較不夠的關係,一般來說,超過10年的 Viognier 通常都已經開始走下坡,所以這個葡萄品種的酒還是趁新鮮快快殺掉吧。

由於香氣和口感都經常厚重濃郁,除了可以單獨作為開胃酒飲用之外,在搭配食物部分,也比其他白酒更適合伴隨濃厚醬料的菜式,比方帶有香料的印度烤雞、奶油醬料風味的螃蟹、龍蝦、干貝等。另外又因為酸度偏低又帶有香甜氣息,也適合搭配微辣的食物,例如泰國菜。

Dyson GPR Viognier, 2004, McLaren, Australia



Medium blond.

Medium+ nose with butter, oak and cream. Very similar to a oak-style Chardonnay.

Medium body. The palate contains oak wood, citrus, butter. Medium+ acidity. Maturing on lees contributes the creamy flavors indeed.


Dyson 酒莊葡萄園的土壤上有一層乾草覆蓋,這些是葡萄園除草時所遺留下來,藉以增加養分與保護土壤免於流失,以及避免土壤溫度過熱或過低的問題,使得葡萄藤根部不至於受創以及增加有利葡萄熟成的條件。
Our Viognier grapes are grown with a thick straw mulch covering the floor of the vineyard. The natural breakdown of the straw increases the fertility and productiveness of the soil, cooling and nurturing the vine roots and enhancing
the natural intense flavours of this variety.

全部手工疏果與摘採,另外利用棚子來控制陽光的曝曬程度,讓葡萄免於太快熟成而造成香氣風味不足。
The vines are hand-pruned and hand-picked. The canopy is held up to shade the fruit and allow even ripening with limited exposure to the sun. We have developed this canopy management to allow the rich flavours of the Viognier to
develop slowly.

三月底才採收以求最佳的熟成。在10度低溫環境下做榨汁,同時75%在小法國木桶中發酵,剩下的在不鏽鋼桶中發酵,發酵時間約3~4週。
Harvesting takes place in late March at optimum ripeness and flavour. The fruit is then chilled to 10° centigrade before crushing and basket-pressing. The juice is cold settled with 75% fermented in mature French oak Barriques, with the balance fermented in stainless steel tanks. The pressings are fermented separately and then blended back to the free-run when fermentation is finished (the controlled fermentation takes 3 to 4 weeks to complete).

發酵完成後跟著酵母一起在木桶中熟成,以增添風味。
After fermentation the wine is allowed to settle and start to mature on yeast whilst the unique Viognier flavours develop. Maturation takes place in French oak Barriques prior to bottling. Minimal handling and filtration are practised to ensure that the delicate Viognier flavours are protected at all times.

此款 Viognier 是非常特殊的單一品種酒款,具有熱帶水果、杏桃的風味,還有柑橘以及平衡的酸度。
The Grande Privilege Reserve Viognier is a unique varietal wine, with stone fruit, tropical fruit and subtle apricot flavours, along with citrus characters and balanced acid on the palate.

Domaine de la Janasse, 2008, Vin de Pays de la Principaute d’Orange Viognier



Some grapes are not from Condrieu, so this wine labeled with “Vin de Pays”.

Medium- blond.

Medium nose. lychee, longan, bouquet. But the nose can only sustain for about 45 mins.

White peach and light barrel note go with light chewy mouthfeel. Medium- acidity. Personally think this is a good deal, considering the quality and price (Yalumba 2008 Viognier, Eden Valley, Australia




medium- straw with green hue.

Medium+ nose. Lychee, lemon, peach, apricot, mineral, sugarcane, light vanilla. Shows a bright, active and tropical image.

Medium+ acidity, with light honey, apricot, nuts and stony mineral in the chewy palate. Good.


約 60% 在木桶中,其餘在不銹鋼槽中進行發酵,酵母為葡萄本身所附著或來自周遭環境,沒有額外添加其他的酵母。在木桶中熟成十個月,期間有攪桶來增加風味的複雜度以及奶油風味和口感。Yalumba 另有一款較高階的 Viognier 叫 Virgilius,而沒有拿去裝瓶 Virgilius 的 Viognier 酒也會一起混在這一個等級的 Viognier 裝瓶。
After harvest about 60% of the fruit was gently pressed directly to barrels, the rest to a stainless steel tank. The juice was handled with passive oxidation, allowing the wine to ferment with indigenous yeasts, natural to the vineyard. The wine was left on lees, which with regular batonnage for 10 months, increased the complexity and creaminess of the wine and further heightened the palate weight. At blending, the barrels of wine that have not made The Virgilius blend, here also included in the assemblage.

2008年份風格細緻且香味濃郁,顏色淡金黃帶有綠色色澤。杏桃、忍冬、柳橙精油香氣,口感濃郁豐富且攸長,有白桃、與杏桃味道以及柑橘類尾韻。陳年之後可以期待出現更濃郁的杏桃與香料氣味,以及蜂蜜及烤土司香。
The 2008 vintage has created delicate and aromatic Viognier wines. The colour is pale gold with green highlights, with a nose of pure aromas displaying apricot nectar, lifted honeysuckle and orange oil perfume. The palate is long, rich and luscious, with intense stone fruit – particularly white peach and apricot flavours, finishing with an aromatic citrus freshness. This wine will continue to grow and develop in the bottle, firstly showing enhanced apricots and spice, then after a couple of years, honey flavours and toast.

Ironstone 2007 Viognier, Sierra Foothill, CA, USA



Pale straw.

Lychee, green mango, bouquet.

Medium body, peach, lychee and grape fruit skin. Good with squid.


Tasting Notes:
Our classic yet refined Viognier has a tropical bouquet of white peaches with a hint of honeysuckle. Its intriguing aroma gives way to rich mango with subtle notes of lychee fruit. This refreshing white lingers on the palate with its long, full finish.

Vineyard Notes:
The Viognier grape has flourished in Lodi, California with a classic Mediterranean climate of warm, dry summers amid rich fertile soil. These grapes exhibit intense varietal character due to modern trellis systems combined with deficit irrigation practices.

Production Notes:
During crush, these hand-picked grapes arrived at the winery in the early morning hours where a combination of old and new reductive winemaking techniques were used to create this flavorful wine. This technique preserves the naturally abundant exotic aromas that Viognier is known for. To preserve these aromas, the juice was then cold fermented and maintained in temperature controlled stainless steel tanks.

Winemaker Notes:
Our classic yet refined Viognier has a tropical bouquet of white peaches with a hint of honeysuckle. Its intriguing aroma gives way to rich mango with subtle notes of lychee fruit. This refreshing white lingers on the palate with its long, full finish.

Food Pairing:
Executive Chef James Lehman Recommends ~ The crisp fruitiness and acidity in this wine make it a delightful aperitif with an avocado and grapefruit salad or fried risotto cakes and lemon aioli. In addition, Viognier has more body than most white wines and is an excellent pairing to grilled thyme rubbed pork tenderloin and citrus chicken.

Yalumba 2007 Virgilius Viognier, Eden Valley, Australia



Medium- straw with green hue.

Medium nose (increasing). Lychee, vanilla, oak, grass, nut, fig, wet curb/sidewalk.

Medium+ body and acidity. Mineral, citrus, candy, apricot, pear, lemon skin, and light spicy note of grass. Can obviously distinguish the difference between this and the entry level Viognier.


Hand picked grapes were whole-bunch pressed directly to barrels, and the juice handled with passive oxidation. The wine was fermented in mostly mature French oak barriques, by a population of naturally occurring and differing species of yeast indigenous to the environment of the vineyard. In these “wild” or “feral” ferments each yeast played a small and subtly different part in the development of the wine, creating layers of richness, complexity, fine textures and flavours. After fermentation the wine was aged on lees with regular batonnage for 11 months to further heighten the palate weight and increase the complexity and flavour generosity. At blending only the finest barrels were chosen.

The 2007 season created a wine with both finesse and opulence, with layers of complexity and lusciousness. On the nose the aroma is intense with white peaches, apricots and ginger. The palate is lifted with ginger spice, layered mineral texture and complex apricots along with white stone fruit flavours. The trademark Viognier lusciousness of the palate is clearly evident in this wine which is unctuous and complex while at the same time showing restraint that should ensure good cellaring for at least 3-4 years.

Tardieu-Laurent, 2004, Condrieu



Medium blonde.

Pronounced nose. Creamy, oak, lemon skin, vanilla, bouquet. A bit similar to the Dyson, but much more elegant.

Medium+ acidity. Pear, grapefruit, ripe apple, creamy, light vanilla, and light fir tree. Very elegant.


Terroir : Sant Pierre de Boeuf
Age of vines : Over 40 years
Alcohol : 13.5 %
Livestock : new Allier barrels and trunks
Bottling : A hand with a slight filtration

Comment by Michel Tardieu: We are very pleased to be able to increase quantities this wine without lowering quality. The wine is equal to itself very well expressing his land without the exuberance of Viognier often tiresome after a few sips, justified criticism made by many lovers of great white wines.

酒商Tardieu-Laurent設立於創辦人Michel Tardieu的故鄉普羅旺斯區,一個名叫Loumarin的小鎮。他放下優渥的公職投身釀酒事業,對葡萄酒沒有高度的熱忱是辦不到的。另一位創辦人是大名鼎鼎的布根地酒商 Dominique Laurent,他對木桶培養的獨特見解早已遠近馳名,日本人稱他為「木桶的魔術師」。儘管現已很少參與酒廠事務,在釀造與風格上多少留有他的影響。釀酒顧問Philippe Cambie的加入使得風格更加濃郁而耐久藏。

1997年才成立的酒商,短短的十年間能夠名揚國際,主要歸功於Michel Tardieu對隆河谷地區的全盤掌握與熱忱。旗下酒款涵蓋全區,雖然自家沒有葡萄園,卻與當地最佳的酒農合作,購得優質葡萄園的收成與原酒。因為長期的配合,直接給予伙伴們種植、採收與釀造上的建議與期望,從最源頭就開始掌控品質。

Yves Cuilleron, 2008, Les Chaillets, Condrieu



Medium blonde.

Pronounced nose. Over ripe pomelo, candy, lychee, straw, light honey, and jasmine bouquet.

Medium body. Lemon, mineral, over ripe pomelo, peach, grapefruit skin. Medium+ acidity. Lingering.

Personally consider this is the best of the day.


Origin : the best and oldest vineyards in the area.Steep, exposed south / southeast, located on terraces above the town of Chavanay. “The Chaillet” is not a place name, but said local name comes from the terraces.
‧ Soils : muscovite granite.
‧ Grape varieties : Viognier.
‧ Viticulture : Vines planted in high density, 8000 / 10000 feet per hectare. Without insecticide or pesticide, the number of treatments is limited depending on the weather, very little fertilizer is exclusively organic, respect for the balance of soil and plant. Control of force and yields, thinning, green harvest for better ripening.
‧ Vinification : the grapes are harvested at full maturity and sorted manually. Pressing, alcoholic and malolactic fermentation in barrels, with natural yeasts.
‧ Livestock : 9 months in barrels, on lees, no racking, with regular stirring.
‧ Degree of Alcohol : 13.5% Vol.
‧ Production : approx. 1800 bottles.
‧ Agreement : shellfish, scallops brochette Jacques lemongrass.

Les Chaillets is the local name for the steepest terraces behind Chavanay, their vines old, needless to say, and their soil made up of something known as Muscovite granite. Aging in barrel for nine months, and 30% of the barrels are new.

WS 93 : Superbright and high-toned, this is pure and driven, with enticing Cavaillon melon, lemon verbena, star fruit, Jonagold apple and fennel notes, giving way to a quinine- and mineral-filled finish that brings you back for more. Drink now through 2012.

JR 17 : Scented spicy white fruits, broad in the mouth, creamy but with an attractive savoury mineral depth and length.

Renaissance 2002 Viognier, North Yuba, CA, USA



Medium+ gold.

Medium nose. Honey, apricot, mineral, starfruit, honey, light petrol hint, sugar-pickled fruits.

Medium+ acidity. Dry. Citrus, starfruit, licorice hint, grapefruit, sugar-pickled fruit.

A bit pass the peak.


Location
Planted between 1975-82, the Renaissance vineyard is located in the Sierra Nevada foothills at altitudes of 1700-2350 feet (Yuba County). This is a real mountain vineyard: the vines are planted on slopes with gradations that vary from gentle to breathtaking; the complex topography offers all possible sun exposures and a myriad of micro-climates. The basic quality and character of our Estate Bottled wines distinctly express this terroir.

Soil
The red top soil layer (“Dobbins Loam” and decomposed granite) is very shallow, rich in iron, and poor in organic matter. The subsoil is very rocky Gabbro/Diorite from volcanic/ocean-floor origin, mixed with quartz, multiple mineral-rich variations of clay, and volcanic ash.

Climate
Continental, with cold, rainy winters (51” yearly average), very dry summers with hot days and cool nights caused by cool air that wafts down from the higher Sierras, and long, dry falls that usually extend into late November, early December.

Viticulture
Unusually for California, our vines are “own-rooted” (i.e.not grafted onto any rootstock). Varieties are planted in carefully selected micro-climates and soil combinations to maximize their potential. We practice organic viticulture, and use no pesticides, herbicides, or fungicides other than elemental sulfur. The combination of poor soils and old vines limits our yields to 1.0-1.5 tons per acre on average. (In comparison, Napa Valley averages 5 tons per acre – see http://www.napanow.com/wine.statistics.html .)

Character
Our unique terroir leaves its unmistakable signature in each of our wines. Regardless of the variety, all tend to be concentrated, intensely flavored, with pure fruit aromas, a marked spicy/minerally side, and a powerful structure. Consequently, Renaissance wines have outstanding aging potential, and increase in complexity and harmony over the course of many years in the bottle. Even our white wines age exceedingly well, developing rich honeyed, nutty flavors with extended cellaring.

Hobbs 2006 Viognier, Barossa Valley, Australia



Medium blonde.

Medium nose. Honey, mango skin, mineral, plastic pipe, and bouquet.

Light sweet. pineapple, citrus, honey, sugarcane, and bouquet.


酒莊主人Gregg Hobbs與Allison Hobbs,與現任釀酒師Peter Schell,現在已經是澳洲膜拜酒明星,雖僅有用小小的15公頃葡萄園,但卻握有Barossa Valley最老的幾個Shiraz葡萄園,其中有些還是19世紀末左右所種植,葡萄園採用Biodynamic自然動力法,葡萄數量較少,酒廠有能力以人工整枝以及採收,讓生長期的葡萄可以獲得最多的日照。

澳洲Barossa Valley總是給人過於炎熱的印象,太多的陽光,太多的糖分,太少的酸度,但哈柏斯Hobbs酒莊卻恰好位在Barossa最涼爽的 區域,土層屬於粘土與岩石腐土的混合,易於保存水份,這對陽光強烈的Barossa是一件再好不過的事,你可以說他的葡萄酒很不Barossa,不肥不膩,展現此區前所未有的複雜細緻,但充足陽光與恰當剪枝卻又讓酒體集中濃郁,非常有架構,這就是哈柏斯Hobbs酒莊得以被酒評家冠上膜拜酒莊的秘密。

使用法國北隆河產區最特別的Viognier白葡萄,酒莊在手工採收Viognier葡萄後,將葡萄自然風乾,去除部分葡萄的水份,讓Viognier葡萄的杏桃、辛香料與花香更為集中,酒體飽滿醇厚,酒莊原本產量就不多,風乾的動作讓葡萄汁數量更少,是獨特手法出產Viognier甜酒,極為特別,風味迷人多變,甘美多汁的金黃色Viognier甜酒,滿載蜂蜜與杏桃香氣,細緻刻劃的甜美酒體,有非常好的平衡度與層次感,為375ml瓶裝,年產量僅有2000瓶,是膜拜酒莊Hobbs的得意作品,值得細細品嚐。

Winemaker’s Notes:
Picked from a 1.5 acre patch of our own Viognier planted in 1988. All of our dessert wines are made the same way. We do not use Botrytis infected fruit or fortification in any of our dessert wines. After hand picking the grapes are placed into trays and semi dried. This drying process highlights and intensifies natural flavours and aromas. Giving a very long clean and crisp finish combined with wonderful fruit.

Wine Tasting Notes:
Deep burnished gold colour. Lively complexity of aromas in this wine. Bursting of citrus blossom, green limes and pineapple, cumquats and marmalade following through on the palate. Silky smooth mouthfeel with an enduring finish. This great variety is rich and complex with subtle jasmin and citrus blossom aromas. The palate is crisp clean and inviting with rich flavours of limes, pineapple and tangelos. Great mouth-fill and luscious extended flavours.

Wine Advocate:90 points.
The 2006 Viognier is light gold-colored with a slightly muted nose of apricot and peach. It is fat and ripe in the mouth with layered moderately sweet flavors. Greg and Allison Hobbs vineyards are contiguous with Chris Ringlands Three Rivers vineyards; furthermore, Ringland is a consultant to winemaker Peter Schell. The Hobbs sweet wines are made with minimal intervention and are bottled unfined and unfiltered.

James Halliday:94 points.
Deep gold less luscious than the Semillon, but does have apricot and honey varietal nuances and arguably better balance 9.4% to 2012.

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