Germany wine classification system / 德國酒分級制度

做個整理,資料大多來自 Wikipedia 跟網路上的資訊。

Official Classification / 官方分級制度

[column width="47.5%" padding="5%"] The official classification system of Germany wine was settled down in law in 1971. This classification system defined the "must weight" (sugar sweetness in grape juice), wine regions, information should be listed on label, etc. This classification system classify Germany wines into 4 levels, Deutscher Tafelwein (German table wine), Deutscher Landwein (German country wine, just like Vin de Pays), Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA, quality wine from a specific region), and Prädikatswein (In August 1, 2007, renamed from Qualitätswein mit Prädikat, QmP).

This 4 levels category is similar to French AOC. But, Tafelwein and Landwein only account for 3.6% of all Germany wines, respectively. QbA is about 49.6%, and QmP is about 46.8%. This percentage distribution is quite different from French AOC.

However, this classification system does not rigorously define the wine region, grape variety, vinification, ageing regulations, etc. as other "old world" countries' classification law, so that this system is criticized by many top wine producers.
[/column] [column width="47.5%" padding="0%"] 德國官方的葡萄酒分級制度在 1971 年訂定,主要是規定了葡萄汁糖份含量、葡萄酒生產區、必須在酒標上標示的資訊等。此官方分級制度將德國葡萄酒分為四個等級:餐酒(German Table Wine)、地區餐酒(German country wine, 跟法國的 Vin de Pays類似)、QbA、QmP。

此四級的分類很像法國AOC的分類,不過德國的 talbe wine 跟 country wine 其實只佔了約 3.6%,QbA佔了 49.6%,QmP佔了約 46.8%。此比例的分佈跟法國卻很不一樣。

[/column] [end_columns]

VDP 組織

[column width="47.5%" padding="5%"] VDP (Verband Deutscher Prädikats- und Qualitätsweingüter e.V.) is another classification system, established by the Association of German Prädikat Wine Estates in 1910. There are about 200 wineries (3% of total wineries in Germany) in this unofficial system. The winery wants to be the member of VDP should follow more stringent regulations than the official law. VDP members can use the above eagle logo on their wine bottles.
[/column] [column width="47.5%" padding="0%"] VDP 是另一個分級制度,由 Association of German Prädikat Wine Estates 這個非官方組織在 1910 年訂定,主要的成員包含了約 200+ 家的酒莊(約佔全德國酒莊數量的 3%)。VDP 的規範其實跟官方的分級制度不會差太多,但更加嚴格一些。而 VDP 的成員酒莊可以在他們的酒瓶子上使用如上圖的 VDP logo 老鷹圖案。
[/column] [end_columns]

Großes Gewächs & Erstes Gewächs / Great Growth & First Growth

[column width="47.5%" padding="5%"] Großes Gewächs and Erstes Gewächs are the other unofficial classification systems created by VDP. The legacy Germany wine classification system is not similar to the systems of French, Italy and Spain, which stringently define the grape varieties, regions, yield, wine making process, aging policies, etc. That's why VDP creates these two classifications and related pyramid.

So, we might call this "Großes Gewächs" as "Great Growth", and "Erstes Gewächs" as "First Growth" classifications of Germany wines. Both systems only regulate "dry wines" (white and red) on the vineyard, region, grape varieties, yield (maximum 50 hl/ha), late harvesting policies (must weight should be Spatlese level at least), wine making process, and aging time. Basically, these two system are the same, but "Erstes Gewächs" is only used in Rheingau region. "Erstes Gewächs" requires at 12% and 13% alcohol and max. 13 g/L and 6 g/L residual sugar to Riesling and Pinot Noir, respectively.

Both systems do not authorize the certification to a winery, but to an individual wine instead. Very similar to Spain's Crianza, Reserva and Gran Riserva regulations.
[/column] [column width="47.5%" padding="0%"] Großes Gewächs 與 Erstes Gewächs 都是由 VDP 組織所訂定。現有官方的分級制度主要是依照葡萄汁含糖量來對酒分級,但此方式較難像法國、義大利或西班牙的分級制度較能讓消費者區分出酒的品質好壞。有鑑於此,VDP 的 Großes Gewächs 與 Erstes Gewächs 嚴格規定了葡萄品種、產區、單位面積產量(max. 50 hl/ha)、製作過程、陳年要求、晚收的定義等。這兩個制度其實差不多,但都只針對 dry wine 給予認證,此外,Erstes Gewächs 只用在 Rheingau (萊茵高)產區。各地的 Großes Gewächs 規定有一些差異,而 Rheingau 的 Erstes Gewächs 則規定對 Riesling 至少要有 12% 的酒精濃度,以及最多 13 g/L 的殘糖量;而 Pinot Noir 則至少 13% 酒精度與最多 6 g/L 的殘糖量。

要注意的是,VDP不是針對酒莊給予 Großes Gewächs 或 Erstes Gewächs,而是針對酒款是否符合此規定給予認證。有點類似西班牙的 Crianza, Reserva, Gran Reserva 品質要求規範。
[/column] [end_columns]